Cucumis sativus Marketmore 97

12.5.2018 CHF 4.00 distance de plantation 100 x 50 cm, variété verte foncée à chair blanche, légèrement é, concombre
12 mai 2018, JARDINS EN FÊTE au Château de Coppet, Coppet (VD)
Le Jardin des senteurs, Jardin des senteurs, Neuchâtel

Origine de la plante ou de la variété : USA
origine USA

‘Marketmore 97’: A Monoecious Slicing Cucumber Inbred with Multiple Disease and Insect Resistances Jason Cavatorta1, George Moriarty, Mark Henning, Michael Glos, Mary Kreitinger and Henry M. Munger Department of Plant Breeding, Cornell University, 320 Bradfield Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853

Molly Jahn ‘Marketmore 97’ is the most recent addition to a series of disease-resistant slicing cucumbers developed in the Cornell University Department of Plant Breeding. The fruit have green skin with white spines and an average length and diameter of 18.8 cm and 4.8 cm, respectively. Broad resistance to a number of destructive diseases and insects makes this cultivar well-suited to low-input agricultural systems at the scale of the home gardener or the commercial grower. In addition to the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), cucumber scab (Cladosporium cucumerinum Ell. & Arth.), downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis Berk & Curtis), and powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuliginea Schl. ex Fr.) resistances of ‘Marketmore 76’, ‘Marketmore 97’ contains resistance to alternaria leaf spot [Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keis.], Ulocladium leaf spot (Ulocladium cucurbitae Let. & Roum.), target leaf spot (Corynespora cassiicola Berk. & Curt.), watermelon mosaic virus, papaya ringspot virus, and zucchini yellow mosaic virus. Furthermore, the bitterfree character of this cultivar is responsible for nonpreference of the striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum Fab.) and spotted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber). Finally, a near isogenic line of ‘Marketmore 97’ is available that is gynoecious. A replicated trial of ‘Marketmore 97’ conducted in New York in 2006 confirmed comparable yield and quality to other Marketmore cultivars.
‘Marketmore 76’ has been widely planted since it was first introduced 30 years ago and represents one of the most successful cucumber cultivars ever released. Despite the subsequent development of numerous higher-yielding hybrids (Rowell et al., 2002), the elevated levels of disease resistances combined with improved color and quality have long made this open-pollinated cultivar a standard slicing cucumber. Decades of cucumber breeding efforts at Cornell have continued to focus on resistance breeding and have generated a series of cucumbers combining disease resistances and other traits, including ‘Marketmore’, ‘Marketmore 70’, ‘Marketmore 76’, ‘Marketmore 87’, and ‘Marketmore 88’. This article highlights the most recent development, ‘Marketmore 97’, and presents data regarding the relative performance of ‘Marketmore 97’ and ‘Marketmore 76’, the most widely grown comparable cultivar.

Resistance breeding in cucumber first began in the United States to address the problem of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), the most destructive disease of cucumber at that time. Initial crosses to the cultivar ‘White Spine’ were conducted at Cornell University by Oved Shifriss and C.H. Myers using the oriental cultivar Chinese Long, which had been introduced to the United States by R.H. Porter of Iowa State University (Porter, 1929). The largely recessive character of this CMV resistance (Shifriss et al., 1942) was lost during multiple backcross generations. Consequently, early generations relied heavily on the pedigree method (Munger, 1993) (Fig. 1). Crosses were made to several commercially acceptable varieties, self-fed for numerous generations and, to maintain CMV resistance, crossed to an advanced line between ‘Chinese Long’ and several other popular varieties. Scab resistance was introgressed to develop ‘Marketmore’, which quickly gained popularity. A major flaw of this cultivar is that it tends to form light-colored fruit when grown at high temperatures. Introgression of the u gene (Strong, 1930) for uniform fruit color was achieved by backcrossing to the sister line ‘Tablegreen’, resulting in ‘Marketmore 70’.

The prolonged longevity of foliage in the field resulting from CMV and scab resistance resulted in the prominent appearance of mid- to late-season powdery mildew infection. To address this issue, powdery mildew resistance (PMR) from C.E. Peterson’s cultivar ‘Spartan Salad’ was added to ‘Marketmore 70’ by backcrossing five times alternating with two generations of self-pollination (Jahn et al., 2002). The resulting cultivar was named ‘Marketmore 76’ and proved to be more widely adapted than earlier versions of ‘Marketmore’. Around this time, it was noticed that the PMR trait of ‘Marketmore 76’ was in an unfavorable linkage with resistance to target leaf spot (Corynespora cassiicola) (Lane and Munger, 1985). Increased resistance to this and several other foliar pathogens was obtained by crossing with ‘Wisconsin 2757’ and backcrossing to ‘Marketmore 76’ to produce ‘Marketmore 87’. Finally, ‘Marketmore 97’ was developed by adding resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) from ‘Marketmore 88’ (Fig. 1).
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Description and Performance

The fruit of ‘Marketmore 76’ and ‘Marketmore 97’ are nearly identical in length, diameter, weight, and appearance (Table 1). Both are thick-skinned slicing cucumbers that ship well and are not easily bruised or scarred. They have cylindrical-shaped fruit with small white spines and dark green skin with faint light green striping when mature (Fig. 2). All cultivars in the ‘Marketmore’ series have average-sized vines with dark green leaves that, as a result of resistance to a number of foliar pathogens, tend to remain on the plant well into the growing season.

‘Marketmore 76’ is resistant to CMV, cucumber scab (Cladosporium cucumerinum), downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis), and powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuliginea). The development of ‘Marketmore 97’ resulted from the addition of resistance to the following diseases: alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria alternata), ulocladium leaf spot (Ulocladium cucurbitae), target leaf spot (Corynespora cassiicola), WMV, PRSV, and ZYMV. ‘Marketmore 76’ contains high levels of cucurbitacins that provide resistance to spider mites (Tetranychus urticae). In contrast, ‘Marketmore 97’ contains low levels of cucurbitacins that make it susceptible to spider mites but a poor host for cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum Fab. and Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber). ‘Marketmore 97F’ is a gynoecious near-isogenic line of ‘Marketmore 97’ that has identical fruit characteristics but slightly higher yields (unpublished data).

Most resistant germplasm sources contain numerous undesirable horticultural traits. The biggest challenge during the development of ‘Marketmore 97’ has been the uncoupling of resistance traits from reduced yield, poor fruit quality, and delayed flowering. Through decades of intensive selection, significant progress has been achieved. Although ‘Marketmore 97’ ultimately yields as high as or higher than ‘Marketmore 76’ (Table 1), it is several days later (Fig. 3). Selection for earlier flowering continues but appears to be correlated with a considerable yield penalty (unpublished data).

In conclusion, resistance breeding in cucumber began with the objective of developing resistance to a single disease. However, once this work was completed, additional diseases began to appear that previously had not been problematic. This process has continued for 70 years and has culminated in cucumber germplasm resistant to many diseases. In this article, we present ‘Marketmore 97’, the newest disease- and insect-resistant slicing cucumber released from Cornell University. It has fruit qualities similar to earlier ‘Marketmore’ cultivars but has combined resistances to 10 diseases and to cucumber beetles, is bitterfree, and is available as the gynoecious near-isogenic line ‘Marketmore 97F’. We expect this cultivar to perform particularly well in low-input agricultural settings and as a resistance source for further breeding and hybrid development.
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Availability

‘Marketmore 97’ is a released cultivar and is available from several seed companies, including Abundant Life Seeds, Territorial Seed Company, and Turtle Tree Seeds. ‘Marketmore 97F’ is available from the authors on request.

Notes

We acknowledge the contribution of the following individuals for technical support during the development of this cultivar: Brynda Beeman, Maryann Fink, Matt Falise, Gregory Inzinna, and Nicholas Strutt. We also thank Todd Wehner for his critical review of this manuscript.

The ‘Marketmore 97’ photograph was graciously supplied by Territorial Seed Company. Financial support was provided by the Vegetable Breeding Institute and by USDA grants IFAFS No. 2001-52100-11347, OREI No. 2004-51300-02229, and SARE No. LNE04-204.

↵1 To whom reprint requests should be addressed; e-mail JRC87@cornell.edu

Received for publication November 29, 2006.
Accepted for publication January 23, 2007.

Jahn, M., Munger, H., McCreight, J.

(2002) in The powdery mildews: A comprehensive treatise, Breeding cucurbit crops for powdery mildew resistance, eds Belanger R., Bushnell W., Dik A., Carver T. (Amer. Phytopathol. Soc, St. Paul, Minn), pp 239–248.
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Lane, D., Munger, H.

(1985) Linkage between Corynespora leafspot resistance and powdery mildew susceptibility in cucumber. HortScience 20:593, (abstr.).
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Munger, H.M.

(1993) in Resistance to viral diseases of vegetables, Breeding for viral disease resistance in cucurbits, ed Kyle M. (Timber Press, Portland, Ore), pp 44–60.
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Porter, R.H.

(1929) Reaction of Chinese cucumbers to mosaic. Phytopathology 19:85, (abstr.).
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Rowell, B., Satanek, A., Slone, D., Snyder, J.

(2002) 2002 Fruit and vegetable crops report, Yields and gross returns from new slicing cucumber varieties (University of Kentucky College of Agr, Lexington), pp 32–35.
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(1942) On resistance to the mosaic virus in cucumber. Phytopathology 32:773–784.
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Cornell University, NY

Cucumis sativus (Marketmore 97 Cucumber)
‘Marketmore 97’ is a slicing cucumber generally ready for harvest after 60 days. Cukes are dark green, 9-11 inches long, straight, with white spines. Resistant to many of the cucumber diseases. Cucumbers are known space hogs in the garden, but can be managed quite easily if grown on a trellis. There are bush varieties that take up less space too. Plant in full sun and maintain an even moisture level for even-sized fruit. Warm temperatures are needed for germination and pollination. With a growing season of only 55 to 65 days, it can be grown just about anywhere. Cucumbers seem to do best when night temperatures are around 60 degrees and day temperatures around 90 degrees.
Important Info : Time from planting to harvest is about 60 days. Keep cucumbers picked, as the vine will stop producing if seeds are allowed to mature. Cucumbers do not do well where air is polluted.

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Characteristics
Cultivar: Marketmore 97
Family:Cucurbitaceae
Size:Height: 0 ft. to 0.67 ft.
Width: 0 ft. to 5 ft.
Plant Category:annuals and biennials,
Plant Characteristics:seed start,
Foliage Characteristics:
Flower Characteristics:single,
Flower Color:yellows,
Tolerances:heat & humidity,
Requirements
Bloomtime Range: not applicable
USDA Hardiness Zone:undefined
AHS Heat Zone:Not defined for this plant
Light Range:Sun to Full Sun
pH Range:5.5 to 7.5
Soil Range:Some Sand to Clay Loam
Water Range:Normal to Moist
Plant Care
Fertilizing
Light
Conditions : Full Sun
Full Sun is defined as exposure to more than 6 hours of continuous, direct sun per day.
Watering
Conditions : Moist and Well Drained
Moist and well drained means exactly what it sounds like. Soil is moist without being soggy because the texture of the soil allows excess moisture to drain away. Most plants like about 1 inch of water per week. Amending your soil with compost will help improve texture and water holding or draining capacity. A 3 inch layer of mulch will help to maintain soil moisture and studies have shown that mulched plants grow faster than non-mulched plants.
Diseases : Verticillium or Fusarium Wilt

Wilts may be contracted through infected seed, plant debris, or soil. This fungus begins and multiplies during the cool, moist season, becoming obvious when weather turns warm and dry. Plants wilt because the fungus damages their water conducting mechanisms. Overfertilization can worsen this problem. Able to overwinter in soil for many years, it is also carried and harbored in common weeds.
Prevention and Control: If possible, select resistant varieties. Keep nitrogen-heavy fertilizers to a minimum as well as over-irrigating as they encourage lush growth. Practice crop rotation and prune out or better yet remove infected plants.
Pest : Cucumber Beetle

Cucumber Beetles have a greenish-yellow cast to their hard wing covers, which have a dozen black spots. The western spotted cucumber beetle is orangish with 3 rows of black spots. The most destructive of the cucumber beetles is the western striped cucumber beetle – it has greenish yellow stripes. The larvae of these beetles have legs, are white and slender and about 1/4 – 1/2 of an inch long and have brown heads with brown patches on the first and last segments.
Adult beetles chew holes in leaves and flowers and are notorious disease spreaders of such things as mosaic virus and bacterial wilt. This is transmitted through their mouth parts.
Prevention and Control: If you can find resistant varieties, plant them. Floating row covers help to keep out adults, but should be removed at the onset of flowers. Birds, tachinid flies, and handpicking are the safest control. Insecticides can be used; make sure the product you are using is labelled for cucumber beetle control. Follow all label procedures to a tee.
Pest : Thrips
Thrips are small, winged insects that attack many types of plants and thrive in hot, dry conditions (like heated houses). They can multiply quickly as a female can lay up to 300 eggs in a life span of 45 days without mating. Most of the damage to plants is caused by the young larvae which feed on tender leaf and flower tissue. This leads to distorted growth, injured flower petals and premature flower drop. Thrips also can transmit many harmful plant viruses.
Prevention and Control: keep weeds down and use screening on windows to keep them out. Remove or discard infested plants, keep them away from non-infested plants. Trap with yellow sticky cards or take advantage of natural enemies such as predatory mites. Sometimes a good steady shower of water will wash them off the plant. Consult your local garden center professional or county Cooperative extension office for legal chemical recommendations.
Pest : Whiteflies
Whiteflies are small, winged insects that look like tiny moths, which attack many types of plants. The flying adult stage prefers the underside of leaves to feed and breed. Whiteflies can multiply quickly as a female can lay up to 500 eggs in a life span of 2 months. If a plant is infested with whiteflies, you will see a cloud of fleeing insects when the plant is disturbed. Whiteflies can weaken a plant, eventually leading to plant death if they are not checked. They can transmit many harmful plant viruses. They also produce a sweet substance called honeydew (coveted by ants) which can lead to an unattractive black surface fungal growth called sooty mold.
Possible controls: keep weeds down; use screening in windows to keep them out; remove infested plants away from non-infested plants; use a reflective mulch (aluminum foil) under plants (this repels whiteflies); trap with yellow sticky cards, apply labeled pesticides; encourage natural enemies such as parasitic wasps in the garden; and sometimes a good steady shower of water will wash them off the plant.

Pest : Aphids
Aphids are small, soft-bodied, slow-moving insects that suck fluids from plants. Aphids come in many colors, ranging from green to brown to black, and they may have wings. They attack a wide range of plant species causing stunting, deformed leaves and buds. They can transmit harmful plant viruses with their piercing/sucking mouthparts. Aphids, generally, are merely a nuisance, since it takes many of them to cause serious plant damage. However aphids do produce a sweet substance called honeydew (coveted by ants) which can lead to an unattractive black surface growth called sooty mold.
Aphids can increase quickly in numbers and each female can produce up to 250 live nymphs in the course of a month without mating. Aphids often appear when the environment changes – spring & fall. They’re often massed at the tips of branches feeding on succulent tissue. Aphids are attracted to the color yellow and will often hitchhike on yellow clothing.

Prevention and Control: Keep weeds to an absolute minimum, especially around desirable plants. On edibles, wash off infected area of plant. Lady bugs and lacewings will feed on aphids in the garden. There are various products – organic and inorganic – that can be used to control aphids. Seek the recommendation of a professional and follow all label procedures to a tee.
Fungi : Powdery Mildew

Powdery Mildew is usually found on plants that do not have enough air circulation or adequate light. Problems are worse where nights are cool and days are warm and humid. The powdery white or gray fungus is usually found on the upper surface of leaves or fruit. Leaves will often turn yellow or brown, curl up, and drop off. New foliage emerges crinkled and distorted. Fruit will be dwarfed and often drops early.

Prevention and Control: Plant resistant varieties and space plants properly so they receive adequate light and air circulation. Always water from below, keeping water off the foliage. This is paramount for roses. Go easy on the nitrogen fertilizer. Apply fungicides according to label directions before problem becomes severe and follow directions exactly, not missing any required treatments. Sanitation is a must – clean up and remove all leaves, flowers, or debris in the fall and destroy.

Fungi : Leaf Spots

Leaf spots are caused by fungi or bacteria. Brown or black spots and patches may be either ragged or circular, with a water soaked or yellow-edged appearance. Insects, rain, dirty garden tools, or even people can help its spread. Prevention and Control: Remove infected leaves when the plant is dry. Leaves that collect around the base of the plant should be raked up and disposed of. Avoid overhead irrigation if possible; water should be directed at soil level. For fungal leaf spots, use a recommended fungicide according to label directions.

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Posted by duncan/September 21

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